by Yesenia Burgara
Presented by Eduardo Laguna
by Gustavo Muro
Creating a map that show the estimated amount of remittances sent out from the US into other countries during the year of 2015, provides us with a clear understanding of the amount of monies sent from immigrants in the US. Utilizing data from the World Bank, I was able to cluster together received remittance totals by separated by continent.
The current regime in Washington DC proposes a tax on remittances to build a symbol of division in the form of a wall is an insult to citizens of Mexican culture. If a tax is levied from such a proposal, the backlash would affect immigrants and US citizens.
Honestly, the tax would be unjust for the simple fact the tax would disproportionately affect the working class.
In 2008 the top three countries receiving remittances were number one India, second China, and third Mexico. According to The World Bank, The average value of a single remittance to Mexico was between $340-$350 US dollars in 2007. An interesting observation is that increase in remittances have been seen to correlate with reduced homicide rates in the country that is — for every 1% increase in households receiving remittances in Mexico there is a 0.05% decrease in the homicide rate. Lowering the costs of sending remittances to other countries including Mexico would help fight poverty as well as being an effective method to reduce the organized crime rate according to a study from the ‘Inter-American Development Bank’.
The Trump administration has threatened Mexico with taxing remittances sent from the US to assist in funding for Trump’s proposed border wall. It would be counter-intuitive to de-rail efforts of Mexican and US officials who have been working to make money flows between the two neighboring countries more transparent. If remittances were to become taxed then senders of remittances may consider the use of other methods of sending money, such as physically smuggling it across border lines. Some have even suggested Mexicans might turn to a currency transfer medium such as ‘Bit Coin’ among others which is an online currency that eliminates banks and fees to transmit currency.a
A survey by Inter-American Dialogue of remittances to Mexico found that a majority, 67 percent in 2013, were sent by “undocumented” individuals living in the U.S.
Data gathered by the Mexican government and BBVA Research shows that in 2015, nearly one-third (29.6 percent) of all of the remittances sent from the U.S. to Mexico originated in California. Just over 14 percent was sent from Texas, and 5.1 percent from Illinois.
In 2015, remittances sent to Mexico totaled 2.3 percent of the country’s GDP, the data showed.
Forbes reported that the money sent from the U.S. to Mexico by migrants “replaced oil revenues as Mexico’s number one source of foreign income” in late 2015.
Mexico has relied upon immigrants to maintain families, communities, and in many cases municipalities.
by Mauricio Ruiz
The band’s first step towards becoming Back-Bone happened in December 2012 when Reuben Cortez, Christian Gomez, and David Naranjo left the band Hierba Mala. From that point, the group started collaborating with other musicians from neighboring bands in the area that lead to the induction of Richard Cortez.
Time has left Back-Bone to the members to create the Southbay sound of Dirty Reggae. Back-Bone is based in Carson Ca, of which, the city has witnessed little to none of the specific genre they call Dirty Reggae. This type of reggae is specific to Back-Bone and their creation process of music. Their reggae is not the typical roots reggae, while they try to avoid mainstream fads. The band doesn’t have a specific demographic that they try to appeal to because they want the masses to enjoy their music. Dirty Reggae is Back-Bone’s version of reality music that derives from their own personal experiences. Their performances create an atmosphere where they encounter very little racism and generates positive experiences. The Band is currently working on recording new music to release their album with a complementary music video.
Reuben Cortez, Lead singer of Back-Bone, Mexican-American, says he was very closed minded with the type of music he exposed himself too. Early influences came from classic rock and first wave ska music such as The Specials. Initially, he wanted to play the saxophone but wasn’t given the opportunity, in which, he started playing the trumpet. His trumpet playing lead him to join the local mariachi. Then he sharpened his skills on the guitar taking characteristics from mariachi music such as the rhythms, scratching, redobles, fillings and note selection. The guitar gave him a platform to write lyrics and sing. Christian pushed Reuben to sing because he didn’t aspire to be a singer.
Christian Gomez, Drummer for Back-Bone, Mexican-Honduran, grew up listening to music and watching movies that weren’t appropriate for a child, due to the age differences between siblings. This exposed Christian to a surplus of content at an early age. Learning the drums has expanded his horizon of musicality by being around other musicians with different tastes in music, as well as performance levels. This pushed Christian to try and incorporate every type of music into his creation process.
Richard Cortez, Lead guitar of Back-Bone, American with Mexican heritage, grew up listening to classic rock because of his father. The guitar allowed him to recreate solos he heard from the songs he grew up with. He took great influence to movies and music growing up as well. When asked about his background influence on his music, he said he gained influence from classic rock, not his heritage because he couldn’t incorporate what he wasn’t exposed too.
David Naranjo, Bass player of Back-Bone, Mexican-American, grew up listening to classic rock artist such as led zeppelin. His brothers introduced David to a wide spectrum of music consisting of jimmy page, punk bands, thrash music, Slayer and music from the late 80s. His brothers played the guitar, in which the 9-year age difference influenced him to pick up the bass at an early age. In middle school, he first listened to the song “Take on Me” by Reel Big Fish which lead him to start learning the trumpet and the trombone. He continued to indulge in the Ska/Reggae arena by going to watch Streetlight Manifesto perform live. His heritage had little impact in playing the bass as he would listen to rhythms of the upright bass in Mexican songs. There wasn’t a necessity for him to play the bass until the opportunity arose during the creation of Back-Bone.